bow in reverence to Arihants
Siddhanam |

English:I bow in reverence to Siddhas
Ayariyanam |

English:I bow in reverence to Acharyas
Uvajjhayanam |
bow in reverence to Upadhyayas
Loye Savva Sahunam |
bow in reverence to all Sadhus
Panch Namukkaro |
five-fold salutation
Pavappanasano |

English:Destroys all sins
Cha Savvesim |

English:And amongst all auspicious things
Havai Mangalam |
the most auspicious one

Complete description and detailed meaning of navkar mantra:
• What is Navakar Mantra?
• Who are Arihants?
• Who are Siddhas?
• Who are Tirthankars?
• Who are Jina?
• Who are Acharyas?
• Who are Upadhyayas?
• Who are Sadhus?
• Who are Sadhvis?
• Who are Jinas?
• What is the role of Passions in our life? What are different karmas? Why do pay homage to Arihantas first?

The Navkar Mantra is the most fundamental mantra in Jainism and can be recited at any time of the day. While reciting the Navkar Mantra, the aspirant bows with respect to Arihantas, Siddhas, Ächäryäs, Upädhyäyas, Sädhus, and Sädhvis. The mantra enables us to worship the virtues of all the supreme spiritual people instead of just worshipping one particular person. For this reason, the Navkar Mantra does not mention the names of any Tirthankaras, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upädhyäyas, Sädhus, or Sädhvis. At the time of recitation, we remember their virtues and try to emulate them. In this mantra we bow down to these supreme spiritual personalities, and therefore, it is also called Namaskär or Namokär Mantra. The Navkär Mantra contains the essence of Jainism. It points out that if we want to be truly liberated, we have to give up worldly life (samsär). The first stage of renunciation is to become a monk (sadhu) or nun (sadhvi). While progressing on a spiritual path, some may be designated as Upädhyäyas or Acharya. The ultimate aim is to attain omniscience, becoming an Arihanta, which leads us to liberation, the becoming a Siddha.

The term Arihanta is made up of Ari, meaning enemies, and hant, meaning destroyer. Consequently, Arihanta means destroyer of enemies. In this case the term enemies refers to passions such as anger, greed, ego, and deceit which are internal enemies, because they defile the true nature of the soul. A soul can only reach the state of Arihanta by overcoming all its inner enemies. Once a soul has shed all of its four defiling (ghati) karmas namely Jnanavarniya (Knowledge obscuring) Karma, Darshanavarniya (Perception obscuring) karma, Mohniya (Deluding) Karma and Antaraya (Obstructive) Karma, it becomes an Arihanta and attains perfect knowledge (Kevaljnana), perfect perception (Kevaldarshana), and infinite power (Ananta Virya) and it becomes a passionless (vitragi). Arihantas are divided into two categories: Tirthankar and Ordinary. Arihantas who have attained Tirthankar Näm Karma become Tirthankaras while the rest of them become Ordinary Arihants. There are twenty-four Tirthankaras during every half time cycle. These Tirthankaras reinstate the Jain Sangh (four-fold Jain Order) consisting of Sädhus (monks), Sädhvis (nuns), Shrävaks (male householders), and Shrävikäs (female householders). The first Tirthankar (Arihanta) of this time period was Lord Rushabhdev, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar was Lord Mahävira, who was lived from 599B.C. to 527B.C. Tirthankaras are also called Jinä (conqueror of inner passions) from which the term Jain, follower of a Jinä, is derived. At the time of Arihanta’s nirvän (death), the remaining four non-defiling (aghati) karmas such as Nam (Physique determining) Karma, Gotra (Status determining) Karma, Vedniya (Feeling producing) Karma and Ayushya (Age span determining) Karma, are destroyed. Ordinary Arihants are those souls who attain salvation, but do not possess Tirthankar Nama Karma and hence, do not establish the Jain Order. After attaining salvation they are called Siddhas. Since Siddhas have attained ultimate liberation, we do not have access to them. However, Arihantas offer us spiritual guidance during their lifetime. In order to show our special reverence for their teachings, we bow to them first, hence the first verse of the Navkar Mantra. Currently, as per scriptures except at Mahavideh kshetra, there are no Arihantas. The last Arihant was Jambuswami. According to the Agams (Jain scriptures) there will be no more Arihantas during the remaining period of the current half-time cycle.

Siddhas are liberated souls. They have reached the highest state, salvation, and have attained Moksha. They have eradicated all their karmas, and therefore do not accumulate any more new karmas, thus freeing themselves forever from the cycle of birth and death (Akshaya Sthiti). This state of freedom is called Moksha. They are experiencing ultimate, unobstructed bliss (Aksha Sukh) and are not subjected to any kind of suffering. They possess perfect and total knowledge (Anatjnan, Kevaljnana, omniscience) and perception (Anat Darshan, Kevaldarshana, omniperception), that means they know and perceive everything in total that is happening now, that has happened in the past, and that which will happen in the future all at the same time and they also possess infinite vigor (Anant-Virya). They have no desires and are completely detached thus making them immune from any sense of craving or aversion (Anant Charitra, Vitragatva). Despite the fact that all Siddhas retain a unique identity, they are equal (Aguru-laghutva) and formless(Arupitva).

The message of Jina, Lord Mahävira the last Tirthankara, is carried by the Acharya, our spiritual leaders. The responsibility of the spiritual welfare of the entire Jain Sangh rests on the shoulders of the Acharyas. Before reaching this state, one has to do an in-depth study and have a thorough mastery of the Jain Agams. In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they also have the ability to lead the monastic communion. They should also know the various languages of the country and have acquired a sound knowledge of other philosophies, ideologies, and religions of the region and the world.

This title is given to those Sädhus who have acquired a special knowledge of the Agams (Jain scriptures) and philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to deserving aspirants, including sädhus and sädhvis.

5) SADHUS(Muni)
A male person who renounces the worldly life is called a monk or sädhu, and a female is called a nun or sadhvi. When householders become detached from the worldly aspects of life and aspire for spiritual uplift, they renounce their worldly lives and become Sädhus or Sädhvis, by accepting Deekshä. Before such initiation, they must stay with Sädhus or Sädhvis for a period of time to understand religious studies and to observe the code of conduct for renounced life. When they feel confident, they request an Ächärya to initiate them into the renounced order. If the Ächärya feels that they have the desire and capability to face the rigors of renounced life, then he gives them Deekshä. At the time of Deekshä, the newly initiated sadhu or sadhvi adopts five major vows:
1. Observance of Ahimsa (non-violence)-not to commit any type of violence (Savvao Panaivayao Virman Vrat)

2. Observance of Satya (truth)-not to indulge in any type of lie or falsehood (Savvao Musavayao Virman Vrat)

3. Observance of Asteya (non-stealing)-not to take anything unless it is given by the owner (Savvao Aadinnadanao Virman Vrat)

4. Observance of Brahamcharya (celibacy)-not to indulge in any sensual pleasure (Savvao Mehunao Virman Vrat)

5. Observance of Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)-not to acquire more than what is needed to maintain day to day life (Savvao Pariggrahao Virman Vrat) Some of the special things they observe are they do not accept the food cooked for them. They do not eat before sunrise or after sunset. They drink only boiled water. They walk bare feet. They do not stay in one place for a longer time. They do not touch any person of opposite sex. They do not get involved in social affairs there by meaning they are not a social workers. All nuns wear white clothes. They offer spiritual guidance to us. Their goal to become is to be liberated from this worldly life and that is why their activities are directed towards uplift of their souls to Paramätman (the state of liberation). Self-discipline and purity is the main part of their daily lives.